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There are two types of logical argument, inductive and deductive. In an inductive argument, the reader holds up a specific example, and then claims that what is true for it is also true for a general category. For instance, “I have just tasted this lemon. It is sour. Therefore, all lemons are probably sour.” Deductive reasoning works in the opposite manner; it begins with a general or universal rule accepted by most people (“all lemons are sour”) and then applies that claim to a specific example. (“That is a lemon. Therefore, it too must be sour.”) A third type of logic is reductive or eliminatory logic, in which a conclusion is reached by a process of elimination. For example, “The only ways out of the building are the front door, the window, and the fire escape. Since the burglar did not take the front door or the window, he must have used the fire escape.”

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The other types of persuasive appeal are pathos and ethos.

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